Active ones first

Active circuit elements are controlled by a control voltage. This determines their operation, such as switching or current throughput. Examples include diodes, transistors, thyristors, relays, etc.
Potenciometr na kytaře

What is meant by a passive element?

Passive components, on the other hand, operate according to physical values that do not change when voltage or current flows through them. The only factor that can affect them more or less is probably the ambient temperature. For example, capacitors, inductors, resistors, and various control knobs fall into this category.


Resistors (or registers in common Czech) include fixed and variable resistors, which are inserted into a circuit primarily to divide and reduce current and voltage. Fixed resistors have a set resistance value that varies only with temperature and voltage, whereas variable resistors can change their resistance value within a certain range to adjust the function of other components in the circuit. In this way, volume can be adjusted, lights can be dimmed or turned on, and temperature can be adjusted. It is in this regard that one often encounters the term potentiometer.
Prvky elektrického obvodu


A component that functions to store electrical energy. A capacitor consists of two electrodes (conductive plates) separated by a so-called dielectric (capacitor paper, mica, ceramic, air, etc.). A polarized charge is applied to the opposite electrode and they attract each other.


A coil consists of an insulated coil of wire, usually with an insulating backbone. Coils can be used as inductance carriers to generate magnetic fields or forces or to induce currents through magnetic fields. 24]

Control knobsUsed primarily in conjunction with potentiometers, which are attached to their shafts to control the operator. It is equipped with various scales and color coding to facilitate the setting of desired values.

— 14 December 2023